Tuesday, February 26, 2013



Model of Human Occupation (MOHO)
Is perhaps the best-researched model of practice in occupational therapy. Model of practice that views occupation in terms of volition, habituation, performance, and environment.

Canadian Model of Occupational Therapy (CMOP)
Has also generated a wealth of research to support its design. The core of this model is spirituality, which is defined broadly as anything that motivates or inspires a person.The person, environment (which includes institutions), and occupations are the other parts of the model.

Person-Environment-Occupation-Performance (PEOP)
A model of practice developed by Christiansen and Baum provides definitions and describes the interactive nature of human beings. This model provides generic, broad terms for each area (e.g., person, environment, occupation, performance).

Person includes the physical, psychological aspects of the individual. Environment includes the physical and social supports, and those things that interfere with the individual's performance. Occupation refers to the everyday things people do and in which they find meaning. Peformance refers to the actions of occupations.

Canadian Occupational Performance Measure
Is a semistructured interview based on this model and provides practitioners with the tool to organize their thoughts.
This interview tool helps identify the family's priorities for their child with special needs and assists in developing therapy goals with the child's primary caregivers. Distributed by the AOTA.


Neurodevelopment frame of reference
Requires that the practitioner touch the client throughout the movement and facilitate a normal movement pattern.

Behavioral frame of reference
To reward positive behaviors and ignore negative ones.

Cognitive disability frame of reference
Proposed by Claudia Allen this frame of reference Is based on the premise that cognitive disorders in those with mental health disabilities are caused by neurobiologic defects or deficits related to the biologic functioning of the brain. derived from research in neuroscience, cognitive psychology, information processing, and biologic psychiatry.

Biomechanical frame of reference
A frame of reference derived from theories in kinetics and kinematics; used with individuals who have deficitis in the peripheral nervous, musculoskeletal, integumentary, or cardiopulmonary system

Developmental frame of reference
Identifies the highest level motor, social, cognitive skills in which a client can engage, and facilitate improvements in function from the staring point. Grade activities so that the client cane achieve them, but is slightly challenged. Help "close the gap" in the areas in which the client is unable to perform.

Motor control frame of reference
Work with the client impaired motor skills through activities in the natural environment. Allow the client to make mistakes and learn from them. This FOR suggests that the practitioner provide verbal and physical cues as necessary. Practice should take place in short sessions with frequent breaks.

Perceptual motor training FOR
Work with the client on improving his memory, cognitive skills, safety awareness, and visual perception through a variety of table top activities. May include many computer-type games and strategies.

Sensorimotor frame of reference
Work on improving the client motor skills through practice of occupations. The OT practitioner sets up activities in which the client practices his coordination.


Sensory Integration
KAWA Model


  1. sorry, can you tell me what book did you study for behavioral frame of reference? I have a little bit problem to find the book because my campuss' library's books were borrowed but I have to use the book soon. thanks before :)

  2. hello, i recomended a book " Occupational Therapy in Childhood" if you want get e book you can ask me, and i can send by email for you, :)

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  3. hi! i'm an OT student and i have a thesis about the frames of reference that are used in the pediatric occupational therapy practice.. i have a little problem of the different information that i have read in our literature..in case you have guidelines from your uni...i would appreciate it so much to share it with me! thanks in advance:)

    1. sori for the late reply, we was out for clinical practical
      usually we use sensory integration and behavior frame of reference for peads,
      and biomechanic frame of reference for CP children and acqusitional frame of reference for LD or cognitive issue

      For complete or comprehensive guidelines, our uni did not provide it. sorry for that. you may ask your therapist for guideline that their use in the hospital or practice setting
      sori again for the late reply and tenx for visiting us ;)

  4. Hello i just came across ur blog and i' m just wondering are you from malaysia? Where are you doing ur OT course? It's so hard to come across Malaysians doing OT!

  5. Hallo, can you help me? Where can I find case study of behavioral frame of reference?